A Streptomyces strain isolated from a hyper-arid Atacama Desert soil was characterised using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The strain, designated C2(T), had chemical and morphological properties typical of the genus Streptomyces. The isolate formed a branch in the Streptomyces 16S rRNA gene tree together with the type strain of Streptomyces chromofuscus and was also loosely related to Streptomyces fragilis NRRL 2424(T). DNA:DNA relatedness values between the isolate and its two phylogenetic neighbours showed that it formed a distinct genomic species. The strain was readily distinguished from these organisms using a combination of morphological and phenotypic data. Based on the genotypic and phenotypic results, isolate C2(T) represents a novel species in the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces bullii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is C2(T) (=CGMCC 4.7019(T) = KACC 15426(T)).