Pattern recognition receptors and their role in invasive aspergillosis.
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) are germline receptors that recognize conserved structures on microorganisms. Several PRRs have been identified in the recent years that are involved in the immune response against Aspergillus fumigatus. The role of PRRs in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis becomes especially apparent in the setting of an immunocompromised status of the host because of the redundancy of many PRRs in the host defense against A. fumigatus. Studies that investigated the PRRs and their effector pathways in invasive aspergillosis have led to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of invasive aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients. This knowledge may pave the way for novel diagnostic and immunomodulatory treatment strategies that are needed to overcome the high mortality associated with invasive A. fumigatus infection in immunocompromised patients.