Direct a-hydroxy acid loading onto a bacterial thiotemplate assembly line via a multienzyme gateway.

Fiedler J, Trottmann F, Ishida K, Mie II, Hertweck C (2024) Direct a-hydroxy acid loading onto a bacterial thiotemplate assembly line via a multienzyme gateway. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl [Epub ahead of print]

Abstract

Various nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPS) create structural and functional diversity by incorporating a-hydroxy acids into peptide backbones. Trigonic acid, an unusual cyclopropanol-substituted hydroxy acid, is the source of the molecular warhead of malleicyprol, a critical virulence factor of human and animal pathogens of the Burkholderia pseudomallei (BP) group. The process of selecting and loading this building block remained enigmatic as the NRPS module designated for this task is noncanonical. Using a combination of bioinformatics, mutational analyses, targeted metabolomics, and in vitro biochemical assays, we show that two trans-acting enzymes are required to load this central building block onto the modular assembly line. An adenylation-thiolation didomain enzyme (BurJ) activates trigonic acid, followed by the translocation of the enzyme-bound α-hydroxy acid thioester by an FkbH-like protein with a mutated phosphatase domain (BurH). This specialized gateway is the first reported direct loading of a hydroxy acid onto a bona fide NRPS module in bacteria and expands the synthetic biology toolbox for the site-specific incorporation of non-canonical building blocks. Moreover, insight into the biochemical basis of virulence factor biosynthesis can provide a foundation for developing enzyme inhibitors as anti-virulence therapeutics against BP pathogen infections.

Leibniz-HKI-Autor*innen

Jonas Fiedler
Christian Hertweck
Keishi Ishida
Mie Ishida-Ito
Felix Trottmann

Identifier

doi: 10.1002/anie.202405165

PMID: 38728443