Candida albicans Interaction with oral epithelial cells: Adhesion, invasion and damage assays.
Microbial interactions with epithelial barriers are important steps preceding disease. Infections with Candida albicans are no exception. This opportunistic fungus, commonly harmlessly residing in close proximity to human epithelia, can shift to a more pathogenic form, can invade tissues, and cause disease. Pathogenesis, in C. albicans as well as in many other microorganisms, is characterized by three important steps: adhesion to-, invasion into-, and damage of host cells. In this book chapter, we describe three well-established protocols that allow us to differentially stain C. albicans cells adhering to and invading into host cells, therefore allowing quantifications of such processes. We also describe a common host cell cytotoxicity assay that employs a commercial kit, adapted to C. albicans.