The gut microbiome, resistome, and mycobiome in preterm newborn infants and mouse pups: lack of lasting effects by antimicrobial therapy or probiotic prophylaxis.

Yuu EY, Bührer C, Eckmanns T, Fulde M, Herz M, Kurzai O, Lindstedt C, Panagiotou G, Piro VC, Radonic A, Renard BY, Reuss A, Leal Siliceo S, Thielemann N, Thürmer A, van Vorst K, Wieler LH, Haller S# (2024) The gut microbiome, resistome, and mycobiome in preterm newborn infants and mouse pups: lack of lasting effects by antimicrobial therapy or probiotic prophylaxis. Gut Pathogens 16(1), 27.

#corresponding author

Abstract

Background: Enhancing our understanding of the underlying influences of medical interventions on the microbiome, resistome and mycobiome of preterm born infants holds significant potential for advancing infection prevention and treatment strategies. We conducted a prospective quasi-intervention study to better understand how antibiotics, and probiotics, and other medical factors influence the gut development of preterm infants. A controlled neonatal mice model was conducted in parallel, designed to closely reflect and predict exposures. Preterm infants and neonatal mice were stratified into four groups: antibiotics only, probiotics only, antibiotics followed by probiotics, and none of these interventions. Stool samples from both preterm infants and neonatal mice were collected at varying time points and analyzed by 16 S rRNA amplicon sequencing, ITS amplicon sequencing and whole genome shotgun sequencing.

Results: The human infant microbiomes showed an unexpectedly high degree of heterogeneity. Little impact from medical exposure (antibiotics/probiotics) was observed on the strain patterns, however, Bifidobacterium bifidum was found more abundant after exposure to probiotics, regardless of prior antibiotic administration. Twenty-seven antibiotic resistant genes were identified in the resistome. High intra-variability was evident within the different treatment groups. Lastly, we found significant effects of antibiotics and probiotics on the mycobiome but not on the microbiome and resistome of preterm infants.

Conclusions: Although our analyses showed transient effects, these results provide positive motivation to continue the research on the effects of medical interventions on the microbiome, resistome and mycobiome of preterm infants.

Keywords: Antibiotics; Infloran; Mice model; Microbiome; Mycobiome; Preterm infants; Resistome.

Leibniz-HKI-Autor*innen

Oliver Kurzai
Sara Leal Siliceo
Gianni Panagiotou

Identifier

doi: 10.1186/s13099-024-00616-w

PMID: 38735967