Intracellular survival of Candida glabrata in macrophages: immune evasion and persistence.
Candida glabrata is a successful human opportunistic pathogen which causes superficial but also life-threatening systemic infections. During infection, C. glabrata has to cope with cells of the innate immune system such as macrophages, which belong to the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Candida glabrata is able to survive and even replicate inside macrophages while causing surprisingly low damage and cytokine release. Here, we present an overview of recent studies dealing with the interaction of C. glabrata with macrophages, from phagocytosis to intracellular growth and escape. We review the strategies of C. glabrata that permit intracellular survival and replication, including poor host cell activation, modification of phagosome maturation and phagosome pH, adaptation to antimicrobial activities, and mechanisms to overcome the nutrient limitations within the phagosome. In summary, these studies suggest that survival within macrophages may be an immune evasion and persistence strategy of C. glabrata during infection.