Infections remain a threat for patients with haematological malignancies. In accordance with the European Hematology Association roadmap we provide a concise overview regarding the most relevant current challenges in infectious diseases for haematologists. These include bacterial infections and the need for antibiotic stewardship as well as infections with community-acquired respiratory viruses, infections in patients receiving targeted therapies, re-activations of latent infections and vaccination strategies. The following review intends to summarise the most relevant information for clinicians currently caring for patients with haematological malignancies. Recommendations given are based on the guidelines published by the Infectious Diseases Working Party of the German Society of Haematology and Medical Oncology.