From bench to bedside - translational approaches in anti-fungal immunology.
Invasive fungal infections mainly occur in patients suffering from impaired immunity. Their associated mortality is high despite antifungal treatment. Thus, several efforts have been made to translate our knowledge on protective antifungal immunity into clinical application. Since the first attempts with transfusion of neutrophilic granulocytes, these approaches have become more refined and include administration of cytokines to booster antifungal immune responses or selective stimulation of pattern recognition receptors. Recently, novel tools that have proven effective in the treatment of cancer have offered new options for enhancing antifungal immunity. These approaches include checkpoint inhibitors as well as T-cell based therapies, including chimeric antigen receptor T-cells.