Intracellular metabolite profiling of Fusarium oxysporum converting glucose to ethanol.
(2005) Intracellular metabolite profiling of Fusarium oxysporum converting glucose to ethanol. J Biotechnol 115(4), 425-434.
The filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum is known for its ability to produce ethanol by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cellulose. However, the conversion rate is low and significant amounts of acetic acid are produced as a by-product. In this study, the growth characteristics of F. oxysporum were evaluated in a minimal medium using glucose as the sole carbon source in aerobic, anaerobic and oxygen-limited batch cultivations. Under aerobic conditions the maximum specific growth rate was found to be 0.043 h(-1), and the highest ethanol yield (1.66 mol/mol) was found under anaerobic conditions. During the different phases of the cultivations, the intracellular profiles were determined under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The profiles of the phosphorylated intermediates indicated that there was a high glycolytic flux at anaerobic growth conditions, characterized by high efflux of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P) and fructose-6-phosphate (F6P) from the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) to the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway, resulting in the highest ethanol production under these conditions. The amino acid profile clearly suggests that the TCA cycle was primarily active under aerobic cultivation. On the other hand, the presence of high levels of gamma-amino-n-butyric acid (GABA) under anaerobic conditions suggests a functional GABA bypass and a possible block in the TCA cycle at these conditions.