Persistent T-cell reactivity in a seronegative patient after SARS-CoV-2 infection and one vaccination.
We present here a 64-year-old male participant of the CoNAN study who experienced a PCR-confirmed mild SARS-CoV-2 infection but did not develop any measurable antibody response. Additionally, after vaccination with ChAdOx1 (AstraZeneca, Cambridge, UK) 11 months later, no antibodies were detected in six serological tests three weeks after the vaccination. When we assessed T-helper (Th) cell immunity, SARS-CoV-2-specific Th cells produced detectable amounts of IFNγ and TNF six weeks after the infection. A robust T-cell immunity remained detectable at least until six months after the infection and was boosted by the vaccination thereafter. This case report points out that an assessment of a prior infection or a vaccine response based solely on antibody detection might have limitations in individual patients.