Gene cluster activation in a bacterial symbiont leads to halogenated angucyclic maduralactomycins and spirocyclic actinospirols.
Growth from spores activated a biosynthetic gene cluster in Actinomadura sp. RB29, resulting in the identification of two novel groups of halogenated polyketide natural products, named maduralactomycins and actinospirols. The unique tetracyclic and spirocyclic structures were assigned based on a combination of NMR analysis, chemoinformatic calculations, X-ray crystallography, and 13C labeling studies. On the basis of HRMS2 data, genome mining, and gene expression studies, we propose an underlying noncanonical angucycline biosynthesis and extensive post-polyketide synthase (PKS) oxidative modifications.