Interaction of pathogenic yeasts with phagocytes: survival, persistence and escape.
Pathogenic yeasts, either from the environment or the normal flora, have to face phagocytic cells that constitute the first line of defence during infection. In order to evade or counteract attack by phagocytes, pathogenic yeasts have acquired a repertoire of strategies to survive, colonize and infect the host. In this review we focus on the interaction of yeasts, such as Candida, Histoplasma or Cryptococcus species, with macrophages or neutrophils. We discuss strategies used by these fungi to prevent phagocytosis or to counteract phagocytic activities. We go on to describe the strategies that permit intracellular survival within phagocytes and that may eventually lead to damage of and escape from the phagocyte.