An unusual presentation of invasiv Fusarium aortitis in a patient who is immunocompromised: A case report.
Fusarium (F.) species are ubiquitous filamentous fungi that may cause various opportunistic infections, especially in patients who are immunocompromised. A rare manifestation of disseminated fusariosis affects the aortic valve and results in invasive aortitis, which poses a significant challenge for clinicians in diagnosis and treatment. Here, we report a case of a patient, aged 54 years, who is immunocompromised, presenting initially with Fusarium keratitis and chorioretinitis in both eyes and a new endovascular aortic mass. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography was performed, suggesting aortitis. Transoesophageal echocardiography and electrocardiogram-guided computed tomography-angiography confirmed a large intraluminal mass in the ascending aorta. The aortic mass and a part of the ascending aorta were resected surgically, and a filamentous fungus with the microscopic features of the genus Fusarium was isolated and later identified molecularly as F. petroliphilum. The course of the treatment was complicated by perioperative cerebral embolization and mesenteric ischemia. These complications could be attributed to a preoperatively existing occlusion of the superior and inferior mesenteric artery and a subtotal stenosis of the celiac trunk. This case report describes a rare manifestation of disseminated fusariosis, frequently characterized by protracted clinical courses with poor prognosis. Fusariosis may manifest at different sites at different times or persist as a long-lasting disease with reactivation. This case highlights the importance of the interdisciplinary approach for effectively treating invasive mycoses.