Regioselective oxidative phenol coupling by a mushroom unspecific peroxygenase.

Platz L, Löhr NA, Gerkens MP, Eisen F, Bär C, Braun K, Fessner N, Hüttel W, Hoffmeister D, Müller M (2024) Regioselective oxidative phenol coupling by a mushroom unspecific peroxygenase. Angew Chem Int Ed , e202407425.

Abstract

Bioactive dimeric (pre-)anthraquinones are ubiquitous in nature. Their biosynthesis via an oxidative phenol coupling (OPC) step is catalyzed by either cytochrome P450 enzymes, peroxidases, or laccases. While the biocatalysis of OPC in molds (Ascomycota) is well-known, the respective enzymes of mushroom-forming fungi (Basidiomycota) are still unknown. Here, we report on the biosynthesis of the atropisomers phlegmacin A1 and B1, unsymmetrical 7,10'-homo-coupled dihydroanthracenones of the mushroom Cortinarius odorifer. The biosynthesis was heterologously reconstituted in the mold Aspergillus niger. We show that methylation of the dimeric (pre-)anthraquinone building block atrochrysone to its 6-O-methyl ether torosachrysone by the O-methyltransferase (CoOMT1) precedes the regioselective homo-coupling to phlegmacin, catalyzed by an unspecific peroxygenase (CoUPO1). Our results revealed an unprecedented UPO-mediated unsymmetric OPC reaction, thereby expanding the biocatalytic portfolio of OPC-type reactions beyond the commonly reported enzymes. The findings highlight the pivotal role of OPC in natural processes, demonstrating that Basidiomycota employed peroxygenases to develop the ability to selectively couple aryls, distinct and convergent to any other group of organisms.

Leibniz-HKI-Authors

Christian Bär
Dirk Hoffmeister
Nikolai Löhr

Identifier

doi: 10.1002/anie.202407425

PMID: 38963262