Interaction of Zygomycetes with innate immune cells reconsidered with respect to ecology, morphology, evolution and infection biology: a mini-review.
Zygomycetes are saprophytic fungi found ubiquitously in nature. Generally, fungi are considered as the most common microbes encountered by mammalian hosts due to its ubiquity in nature. Among the fungi, the Zygomycetes represent the most basal terrestrial lineage which can cause infections in humans. They comprise two orders, the Mucorales and the Entomophthorales, which contain human pathogenic species. Members of the Mucorales are responsible for mucormycosis; the second most common mould fungi infection in the world and infection with members of the Entomophthorales can result in basidiobolomycosis and conidiobolomycosis. However, the infection does not occur frequently as we have efficient barriers from immune system against the fungal invasion. In this review, a summary is provided on the current literature available on innate immune cells such as polymorphonuclear leucocytes, macrophages, etc. and their interaction with zygomycetes.