Human mucosal-associated invariant T cells respond to Mucorales species in a MR1-dependent manner.
Activation of mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells) by certain bacteria, viruses, and yeast is well studied, but the activation potential of filamentous moulds from the order Mucorales is not known. Here, we show a rapid response of human MAIT cells against the Mucorales species Mucor circinelloides, Rhizopus arrhizus, and Rhizopus microsporus. This activation included upregulation of CD69 and degranulation marked by increased CD107a expression, while intracellular perforin and granzyme A expression were reduced. Furthermore, blocking of the antigen-presenting molecule major histocompatibility complex class I-related abrogated MAIT cell activation demonstrating a T cell receptor-dependent stimulation by Mucorales.