Comparative genomic and metabolic analysis of Streptomyces sp. RB110 morphotypes illuminates genomic rearrangements and formation of a new 46-membered antimicrobial macrolide.
Morphotype switches frequently occur in Actinobacteria and are often associated with disparate natural product production. Here, we report on differences in the secondary metabolomes of two morphotypes of a Streptomyces species, including the discovery of a novel antimicrobial glycosylated macrolide, which we named termidomycin A. While exhibiting an unusual 46-member polyene backbone, termidomycin A (1) shares structural features with the clinically important antifungal agents amphotericin B and nystatin A1. Genomic analyses revealed a biosynthetic gene cluster encoding for a putative giant type I polyketide synthase (PKS), whose domain structure allowed us to propose the relative configuration of the 46-member macrolide. The architecture of the biosynthetic gene cluster was different in both morphotypes, thus leading to diversification of the product spectrum. Given the high frequency of genomic rearrangements in Streptomycetes, the metabolic analysis of distinct morphotypes as exemplified in this study is a promising approach for the discovery of bioactive natural products and pathways of diversification.