From intestinal colonization to systemic infections: Candida albicans translocation and dissemination.
Candida species are the most prevalent cause of invasive fungal infections, of which Candida albicans is the most common. Translocation across the epithelial barrier into the bloodstream by intestinal-colonizing C. albicans cells serves as the main source for systemic infections. Understanding the fungal mechanisms behind this process will give valuable insights on how to prevent such infections and keep C. albicans in the commensal state in patients with predisposing conditions. This review will focus on recent developments in characterizing fungal translocation mechanisms, compare what we know about enteric bacterial pathogens with C. albicans, and discuss the different proposed hypotheses for how C. albicans enters and disseminates through the bloodstream immediately following translocation.