Botryorhodines A-D, antifungal and cytotoxic depsidones from Botryosphaeria rhodina, an endophyte of the medicinal plant Bidens pilosa.
An endophytic fungus (Botryosphaeria rhodina) was isolated from the stems of the medicinal plant Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae) that is known for its anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and antifungal effects. The ethyl acetate extract of the fungal isolate exhibits significant antifungal activity as well as potent cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects against several cancer cell lines. Activity-guided fractionation resulted in the isolation of a complex of four depsidones, botryorhodines A-D and the auxin indole carboxylic acid. Botryorhodine A and B show moderate to weak cytotoxic activities against HeLa cell lines with a CC(50) of 96.97 microM and 36.41 microM, respectively. In addition, they also show antifungal activity against a range of pathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus terreus (MIC 26.03 microM for botryorhodine A and 49.70 microM for B) and the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (MIC 191.60 microM for botryorhodine A and 238.80 microM for B). A potential role of the endophyte in modulating fungal populations living within or attacking the host plant is discussed.