Damage to the host

The mechanism by which Candida albicans damages host cells has been considered to be multi-factorial, and presumed to rely on a combination of adhesion, invasion, hyphal extension, turgor pressure and the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes. Although toxin production by C. albicans has long been postulated and the culture supernatants of C. albicans hyphae shown to exhibit haemolytic activity, the mechanism underlying C. albicans ability to lyse host cells has remained elusive. It is clear, however, that hyphae are essential for adhesion, invasion and damage. Thus, damage is caused by hyphae and/or a hyphal associated factor. However, the exact molecular mechanisms by which C. albicans destroys these host cells has remained enigmatic.

We have identified a peptide toxin, secreted by C. albicans, which has remarkable similarities with melittin – the major component of bee venom. By deleting the encoding gene and in vitro synthesis of the fragment, we have shown that this peptide is, in itself, essential and sufficient for the lysis of host cells. In collaboration with Dr Julian Naglik, Kings College London/UK, and Dr Thomas Gutsmann, Forschungszentrum Borstel/Germany, we are now examining the mechanism by which this potent C. albicans cytolysin disrupts host cell integrity.

We presume that the cytolysin disrupts the host cell integrity by intercalating in the double phospholipid layer and forming pores.
We presume that the cytolysin disrupts the host cell integrity by intercalating in the double phospholipid layer and forming pores.
Publications

Domínguez-Andrés J, Novakovic B, Li Y, Scicluna BP, Gresnigt MS, Arts RJW, Oosting M, Moorlag SJCFM, Groh LA, Zwaag J, Koch RM, Ter Horst R, Joosten LAB, Wijmenga C, Michelucci A, van der Poll T, Kox M, Pickkers P, Kumar V, Stunnenberg H, Netea MG (2019) The Itaconate Pathway Is a Central Regulatory Node Linking Innate Immune Tolerance and Trained Immunity. Cell Metab [Accepted] Details PubMed

Drummond RA, Swamydas M, Oikonomou V, Zhai B, Dambuza IM, Schaefer BC, Bohrer AC, Mayer-Barber KD, Lira SA, Iwakura Y, Filler SG, Brown GD, Hube B, Naglik JR, Hohl TM, Lionakis MS (2019) CARD9+ microglia promote antifungal immunity via IL-1β- and CXCL1-mediated neutrophil recruitment. Nat Immunol 20(5), 559-570. Details PubMed

Fischer D, Gessner G, Fill TP, Barnett R, Tron K, Dornblut K, Kloss F, Stallforth P, Hube B, Heinemann SH, Hertweck C, Scherlach K, Brunke S (2019) Disruption of membrane integrity by the bacteria-derived antifungal jagaricin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother , Details PubMed

Gabaldón T (2019) Recent trends in molecular diagnostics of yeast infections: from PCR to NGS. FEMS Microbiol Rev , Details PubMed

Graf K, Last A, Gratz R, Allert S, Linde S, Westermann M, Gröger M, Mosig AS, Gresnigt MS, Hube B (2019) Keeping Candida commensal - How lactobacilli antagonize pathogenicity of Candida albicans in an in vitro gut model. Dis Model Mech , Details PubMed

Grondman I, Arts RJW, Koch RM, Leijte GP, Gerretsen J, Bruse N, Kempkes RWM, Ter Horst R, Kox M, Pickkers P, Netea MG, Gresnigt MS (2019) Frontline Science: Endotoxin-induced immunotolerance is associated with loss of monocyte metabolic plasticity and reduction of oxidative burst. J Leukoc Biol [Accepted] Details PubMed

Ho J, Yang X, Nikou SA, Kichik N, Donkin A, Ponde NO, Richardson JP, Gratacap RL, Archambault LS, Zwirner CP, Murciano C, Henley-Smith R, Thavaraj S, Tynan CJ, Gaffen SL, Hube B, Wheeler RT, Moyes DL, Naglik JR (2019) Candidalysin activates innate epithelial immune responses via epidermal growth factor receptor. Nat Commun 10(1), 2297. Details PubMed

Ishchuk OP, Ahmad KM, Koruza K, Bojanovič K, Sprenger M, Kasper L, Brunke S, Hube B, Säll T, Hellmark T, Gullstrand B, Brion C, Freel K, Schacherer J, Regenberg B, Knecht W, Piškur J (2019) RNAi as a Tool to Study Virulence in the Pathogenic Yeast Candida glabrata. Front Microbiol 10, 1679. Details PubMed

Jaeger M, Matzaraki V, Aguirre-Gamboa R, Gresnigt MS, Chu X, Johnson MD, Oosting M, Smeekens SP, Withoff S, Jonkers I, Perfect JR, van de Veerdonk FL, Kullberg BJ, Joosten LAB, Li Y, Wijmenga C, Netea MG, Kumar V (2019) A Genome-Wide Functional Genomics Approach Identifies Susceptibility Pathways to Fungal Bloodstream Infection in Humans. J Infect Dis [Accepted] Details PubMed

Jaeger M, Pinelli M, Borghi M, Constantini C, Dindo M, van Emst L, Puccetti M, Pariano M, Ricaño-Ponce I, Büll C, Gresnigt MS, Wang X, Gutierrez Achury J, Jacobs CWM, Xu N, Oosting M, Arts P, Joosten LAB, van de Veerdonk FL, Veltman JA, Ten Oever J, Kullberg BJ, Feng M, Adema GJ, Wijmenga C, Kumar V, Sobel J, Gilissen C, Romani L, Netea MG (2019) A systems genomics approach identifies SIGLEC15 as a susceptibility factor in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. Sci Transl Med [Accepted] Details PubMed

Naglik JR, Gaffen SL, Hube B (2019) Candidalysin: discovery and function in Candida albicans infections. Curr Opin Microbiol 52, 100-109. Details PubMed

Pekmezovic M, Mogavero S, Naglik JR, Hube B (2019) Host-Pathogen Interactions during Female Genital Tract Infections. Trends Microbiol , Details PubMed

Swidergall M, Khalaji M, Solis N, Moyes D, Drummond R, Hube B, Lionakis M, Murdoch C, Filler S, Naglik J (2019) Candidalysin is required for neutrophil recruitment and virulence during systemic Candida albicans infection Journal of Infectious Diseases , Details

Westman J, Hube B, Fairn GD (2019) Integrity under stress: Host membrane remodelling and damage by fungal pathogens. Cell Microbiol 21(4), e13016. Details PubMed Open Access

Allert S*, Förster TM*, Svensson C-M, Richardson JP, Pawlik T, Hebecker B, Rudolphi S, Juraschitz M, Schaller M, Blagojevic M, Morschhäuser J, Figge MT, Jacobsen ID, Naglik JR, Kasper L, Mogavero S, Hube B; *authors contributed equally (2018) Candida albicans-induced epithelial damage mediates translocation through intestinal barriers. mBio 9(3), e00915-18. Details PubMed Open Access

Assendorp EL, Gresnigt MS, Sprenkeler EGG, Meis JF, Dors N, van der Linden JWM, Henriet SSV (2018) Adjunctive interferon-γ immunotherapy in a pediatric case of Aspergillus terreus infection. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis [Accepted] Details PubMed

Lazić J, Ajdačić V, Vojnovic S, Zlatović M, Pekmezovic M, Mogavero S, Opsenica I, Nikodinovic-Runic J (2018) Bis-guanylhydrazones as efficient anti-Candida compounds through DNA interaction. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 102(4), 1889-1901. Details PubMed

Richardson JP, Mogavero S, Moyes DL, Blagojevic M, Krüger T, Verma AH, Coleman BM, De La Cruz Diaz J, Schulz D, Ponde NO, Carrano G, Kniemeyer O, Wilson D, Bader O, Enoiu SI, Ho J, Kichik N, Gaffen SL, Hube B, Naglik JR (2018) Processing of Candida albicans Ece1p is critical for Candidalysin maturation and fungal virulence. MBio 9(1), pii: e02178-17. Details PubMed Open Access

Richardson JP, Willems HME, Moyes DL, Shoaie S, Barker KS, Tan SL, Palmer GE, Hube B, Naglik JR, Peters BM (2017) Candidalysin drives epithelial signaling, neutrophil recruitment, and immunopathology at the vaginal mucosa. Infect Immun , pii: IAI.00645-17. Details PubMed

Moyes DL*, Wilson D*, Richardson JP*, Mogavero S*, Tang SX, Wernecke J, Höfs S, Gratacap RL, Robbins J, Runglall M, Murciano C, Blagojevic M, Thavaraj S, Förster TM, Hebecker B, Kasper L, Vizcay G, Iancu SI, Kichik N, Häder A, Kurzai O, Luo T, Krüger T, Kniemeyer O, Cota E, Bader O, Wheeler RT, Gutsmann T, Hube B, Naglik JR (2016) Candidalysin is a fungal peptide toxin critical for mucosal infection. Nature 532(7597), 64-68. Details PubMed Open Access

Wilson D, Naglik JR, Hube B (2016) The missing link between Candida albicans hyphal morphogenesis and host cell damage. PLOS Pathog 12(10), e1005867. (Review) Details PubMed

Mech F, Wilson D, Lehnert T, Hube B, Figge MT (2014) Epithelial invasion outcompetes hypha development during Candida albicans infection as revealed by an image-based systems biology approach. Cytometry A 85(2), 126-139. Details PubMed

Wilson D, Mayer FL, Miramón P, Citiulo F, Slesiona S, Jacobsen ID, Hube B (2014) Distinct roles of Candida albicans-specific genes in host-pathogen interactions. Eukaryot Cell 13(8), 977-989. Details PubMed

Martin R, Moran GP, Jacobsen ID, Heyken A, Domey J, Sullivan DJ, Kurzai O, Hube B (2011) The Candida albicans-specific gene EED1 encodes a key regulator of hyphal extension. PLOS One 6(4), e18394. Details PubMed

Martin R, Wächtler B, Schaller M, Wilson D, Hube B (2011) Host-pathogen interactions and virulence-associated genes during Candida albicans oral infections. Int J Med Microbiol 301(5), 417-422. (Review) Details PubMed

Wächtler B, Wilson D, Haedicke K, Dalle F, Hube B (2011) From attachment to damage: defined genes of Candida albicans mediate adhesion, invasion and damage during interaction with oral epithelial cells. PLOS One 6(2), e17046. Details PubMed Open Access

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Ann-Kristin Kaune

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Antonia Last

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Rita Müller

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Marina Pekmezović

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